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Brewing was a winter occupation, and ice was used to keep beer cool during the summer months.
Such beer came to be called is now used for top-fermented British types of beer.
In the 1860s the French chemist pure-culture technology was taken up quickly by Continental lager brewers but not until the 20th century by the ale brewers of Britain.
Meanwhile, German-style lagers bottom-fermented by pure yeast cultures became dominant in the Americas.
In Britain it has encouraged support for smaller, traditional ale breweries.
The dark colour comes from highly roasted malt, and other characteristic flavours arise during the decoction mashing process. The wort is made from malted barley, unmalted wheat, and aged hops.The fermentation process is allowed to proceed from the microflora present in the raw materials (a “spontaneous” fermentation). Filtered gueuze, the most popular product, is a bottled blend of lambic and gueuze.Different bacteria (especially lactic acid bacteria) and yeasts ferment the wort, which is high in lactic acid content. A cask product made in a similar manner is thought to have been consumed by miners in the United States during the California Gold Rush.Brewing in the 21st century is a large-scale industry.Modern breweries use stainless-steel equipment and computer-controlled automated operations, and they package beer in metal casks, glass bottles, aluminum cans, and plastic containers.